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1989 Wood, green lamps with red bulbs, paint, Sheetrock, small coffee table, electrical wires, power bar Dimensions variable Collection Ruth Kaufmann, New York

Wood, green lamps with red bulbs, paint, Sheetrock, small coffee table, electrical wires, power bar

Dimensions variable

Collection Ruth Kaufmann, New York



Glossary of Terms

Assemblage – a three dimensional collage, which can be made out of any combination of materials.

Collages – Works that are hung on a wall, and can be made from many objects, which are usually glued or attached to a paper background.  Collage can contain sculptural, or three-dimensional objects, and bridge the way between flat drawings and sculptures.

Color Patterns – Relationships of colors, which interact together differently than they do on their own. 

  • Complementary colors are colors that oppose each other on the color wheel: blue and orange, red and green, and yellow and violet.  Each primary color is paired with a secondary color that is a mixture of the two remaining primary colors.  For instance, the complement of blue is orange, which is a mixture of yellow and red.  When placed next to each other, complementary colors appear vibrant and active. Mixing complementary colors together results in various shades of brown.
  • Luminosity – the degree of intensity, or inner light, found in a color.
  • Primary colors (red, yellow and blue) are colors that cannot be achieved by mixing colors together.  They can be mixed together in various proportions to achieve all other colors. 
  • Secondary colors (orange, green, and violet) are achieved by mixing two primary colors together.
  • Value refers to the degree of lightness or darkness between the extremes of black and white, which can be mixed into colors to change their value.  Value is determined both by the degree of light (natural or artificial) that illuminates an object, and by its local color.  For example, a blue object in under a spotlight can be lighter than a yellow object hidden in deep shadow.
  • Warm and Cool colors- Warm colors are red, orange and yellow; cool colors are green, blue, and purple. Warm colors tend to advance, cool colors tend to recede.

Dynamic vs. Stationary Forms- Stationary objects are still and unchanging; Stockholder transforms stationary objects into dynamic, or active forms that are filled with energy and movement.

Installation – artworks that are meant to be viewed or experience in a three dimensional space.  Installations are often site-specific, which means they are designed to be displayed in a particular room or exhibition space, in response to something specific to the location.  Installations can be indoors or outdoors, and incorporate more than one object, seen in relation to each other, as opposed to individual sculptures.

Mappae Mundi- Maps of the world made in Europe in the Middle Ages.  Because of the importance of Christianity and the lack of technology to accurately measure distance (such as longitude), these maps reflected a worldview or cosmology revolving around Christianity instead of a literal portrayal of the geographical or topographical features. 

Sculpture – an artwork that is free standing or in relief (hung against a wall).  Three dimensional sculptures are usually meant to be seen from various points of view, either “in the round,” from all sides, as in a free-standing sculpture, or from various points along a pathway, as in a relief that hangs on a wall.

Studio Works – Two or three dimensional works created in a studio, not made for a particular space like site-specific installations. Studio works such as paintings, drawings, and sculptures can be displayed in many types of settings.

Transformation of Ordinary Objects- Stockholder incorporates household items into her works, and changes their function and meaning in the process.

Artists and Topics for Further Investigation


  • Robert Rauschenberg

  • Richard Serra

  • Robert Smithson

  • Henri Matisse


  • Fauvism

  • Pop Art

  • Abstract Expressionism

  • Minimalism


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